$$ x + y = z $$ |

Greek letters and other special characters are written with "commands" (a word preceded with a backslash):

$$ \alpha, \beta, \gamma, \omega, \pi $$ |

Functions are written similarly:

$$ \log(n), \cos(x), \tan(y) $$ |

Powers and indices are written with caret and underscore, with the value in braces:

$$ n^{2}, n_{4} $$ |

Fractions are written with a the "frac" command and the numerator and denominator in braces:

$$ \frac{x}{y + 1} $$ |

Roots are written similarly:

$$ \root{x + y} $$ |

Some examples with the above notation used in combination:

$$ \cos(2\omega) = \cos^{2}\omega - \sin^{2}\omega $$ |

$$ \sum_{i=1}^{10} t_i $$ |

$$ \int_0^\infty \mathrm{e}^{-x}\,\mathrm{d}x $$ |

**More information**

LaTeX/Mathematics on Wikibooks

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